✦ When sharing personal or confidential information through email, transactions occur through the email server, which means your information does not remain confidential in the exact sense of the term. 4. The Napster and Grokster free services were effectively terminated by court decisions in the United States. 2008. 2004. My distinction between ethics and morals is based on a distinction drawn by the philosopher John Rawls in developing his theory of justice. 2001. See Schultz (2010, Chapter 7) for further discussion. Retrieved December 2 from news.bbc.co.uk. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. But independent compliance review is included and the importance of these companies acknowledging that principles of global justice take precedence over repressive national laws cannot be overstated (Global Network Initiative 2008). Sometimes the actual person may be a total fiction set up to entrap an unsuspecting pedophile. 1951. These freedoms are important constituents of what are called human rights: privacy, freedom of speech, and freedom of association are enhanced by the ability to communicate freely with others at any location with a computer or such devices as smartphones having similar functionality. If contribution to corporate profits is a sufficient justification for having and enforcing a copyright, then recent prosecution of consumers for making digital copies is ethically in order. Internet privacy is a major concern today. The ethical question is whether this is merely an extension of friends swapping copies (perfectly ethical) or whether it is an illegal (and unethical) violation of copyright. A list of restaurants in Beverly Hills, CA, United States is almost entirely of interest only to those who are located in that area. 2007. Some account is needed of ethical social rules, especially on how they fit together into a system without conflicts. Wikileaks argued unsuccessfully initially in a United States court that United States courts did not have jurisdiction (Elias 2008). In 2004, 92% of households earning US$75,000 and over had computers at home compared to 45% of households earning less than US$20,000. Wong, May. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Obviously, we should consider average value rather than total overall value. For a brief (but still technical) account, see www.encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Arrow’s+theorem. “Better off” is to be measured against enabling values affected by the social structure reflecting an individual’s life prospects. This raises the question of whether it is ethical to have no means for the users to block the advertisers from tracking them. If not, how clearly should they mention the same in their Terms or Privacy Policy? 2007. The Internet is simply an enabler for a process beyond its or anyone’s control. Rawls, John. It is actually not clear that a transnational human rights authority would make things better, because an authority with enough power to override laws concerning rights within a country could easily become a global despot. But the ethical question is one of justice. 2008. The information system has made the social structure very complex as it is very tough to avoid the privacy invasion and protect traditional norms and values to be violated through the impact of … But Rawls explicitly notes that two wider conceptions of property rights are not fundamental: first, the right to private property in natural resources and means of production; second, the equal right to participate in control of socially-owned means of production and natural resources (Rawls 2001: 114). Advertisers use them to track your visits to different domains, thus tracking your web preferences in general. He notes “if you can do it [apply the technology], you must …, otherwise your competitors will” (2005: 374). Microsoft came out firmly against these practices. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. I have already discussed the role of the Internet in helping to fulfill Rawls’s Greatest Equal Liberty Principle, his first principle of justice. Taglang, Kevin. This is not a dangerous claim and is correct. However, unlike phones, bars, or restaurants, Internet media are able to access databases of sexual predators and filter them out. The ethical challenges of privacy One of the issues of the online social networks is the one of privacy. Your online transactions, emails, and social networking profiles are scanned, thus invading your online privacy. Could China have achieved its breathtaking economic growth without restrictions of personal liberty? The original intent of copyright has clearly been distorted in recent years as corporations holding copyrights use their influence in Congress to extend the copyright period almost indefinitely. If globalization is an inevitable consequence of the Internet, then the Internet is ‘off the hook’ ethically, so to speak. Thus they do not have the right to prevent Yahoo from enforcing equal rights (that is, banning censorship). But ethics dictate the extent to which network activity should be monitored. Google’s action clearly violated the Global Economy Greatest-Equal- Freedom Principle. According to Rawls, property rights have their place in a just society for two reasons: first, because social assets tend to deteriorate unless an agent is named to take responsibility for maintaining them; second, because the right to personal property is a basic human right (Rawls 1999b: 8, 65). It’s your moral responsibility as a user, to not make false statements or promote anything wrong. But how do these global institutions become vehicles for a Global Greatest-Equal-Freedom Principle or a Global Difference Principle? However, care must be taken…. The philosopher Immanuel Kant (1785) developed universal principle ethics, founded on his Categorical Imperative: act on principles that could be willed to be universal law. Schultz’s Information Technology and the Ethics of Globalization (2010) contains a very extensive discussion of these global principles, their justification, and their superiority to competing accounts (Schultz 2010: Sections II and III). They are stored on the mail servers before delivery and the backups can remain with them even after the emails are deleted from the inbox. Nokia Siemens has also been accused of supplying equipment to Iran to be used for censorship (Risen 2010). The Internet serves as the means for communication and a platform for financial transactions, and a lot of critical data is exchanged over it. Microsoft. Rep. Chris Smith, R-N. J., introduced a House bill in 2007 that would bar United States Internet companies from turning over personally identifiable information to governments that use it to suppress dissent. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Many countries in the world that are not democratic; they do not allow the free passage of info to or from other countries. Yahoo initially claimed that it was merely complying with Chinese law (Elias 2007). If so, where and by whose rules? Sales tax in the United States is collected by states, and each state sets its own percentage and its own list of what is taxable and what is not. And the seller should be responsible for knowing only the tax rules for the areas in which it does business (and therefore has some responsibility for contributing to the infrastructure needed for commerce). Institute for Local Self-Reliance. 1984. In these situations, unethical behaviour occurs which has already led to con… “The History of the Internet.” Retrieved April 3, 2008 from  www.davesite.com/webstation/net-history.shtml. Several years later, some commentators believe the poor showing of the music industry stemmed from their failure to find a way to make money from peer-to-peer technology rather than shutting it down. When we apply the Difference Principle and consider the Internet usage of the least-advantaged, we need to consider both the impact of their own usage as well as the indirect effects of increased productivity on their prospects. “Google to Help Curb Web Porn in Brazil.” April 9. One important feature of the Global-Economy Social Contract is that it is agreed to by individuals sharing benefits and burdens in the global economy. The only change will be a uniform list of types of taxable items and procedures for publicizing change. 18 There are two issues here: the United States’ failure to honor its own human rights safeguards on the treatment of prisoners, and the basis for Wikileaks’s claim for free-speech rights. The World Wide Web was developed by Swiss physicist Tim Berners-Lee as a method of exchanging scientific information including both text and graphics. But neither court is designed to handle essentially routine legal disputes which are difficult or impossible to locate in any national jurisdiction. Well, we're looking for good writers who want to spread the word. The fact that the music- downloading website Grokster was operating from a server in the Caribbean did not shield it from the United States court decision that shut it down. Thus the Supreme Court’s Sales Tax Locality Principle (Institute for Local Self-Reliance 2007): Only firms with a physical presence in the jurisdiction are required to collect that jurisdiction’s sales taxes. The final element needed for this topic is the ethical role of corporations. The Supreme Court’s Sales Tax Location Principle no longer seems to apply. And a utilitarian could argue that having corporations stick to their purpose of maximizing profits is the policy that will produce the best results for everyone, although this claim is almost certainly incorrect. This tax, the same amount as sales tax, is collected along with the state income tax. And we cannot forget ethics. In the Code of Ethics for the IEEE it states that it will strive “to treat fairly all persons regardless of such factors as race, religion, gender, disability, age, or national origin” (IEEE, 2012). The consideration of justice underlying the location of the collection of sales tax is helping to support the infrastructure of the location where you do business. Cyber-crime refers to the use of information technology to commit crimes. Then, when sued, he or she would have to willingly pay the penalty. Music companies used the courts to shut down a free music-sharing service in 2001. One solution to global ethical problems is simply to extend the principles of justice for particular societies. Somehow I don’t think many people would want to do this. We have seen that many globalized institutions could probably not exist were it not for the Internet. Circles will bring you back to the main topic page for that section Squares will bring you back to the … People do become addicted to sexually charged websites and Internet pornography. These developments will somewhat improve the situation for transnational actors. Global concerns are those which clearly are not the responsibility of one society or another. One concern is that the more-advantaged are getting the benefits of their own use of the Internet added to their previous advantages, whereas the least-advantaged are not using the Internet and are therefore falling farther behind the more-advantaged. A corporation is a legal entity capable of acting in some respects as an individual, mainly in terms of property rights, legal liability, and political rights. But perhaps it would be better for them to expend their resources on researching ways to profitability in a world including relatively free digital copying, than on trying to stamp it out. “A Low-Tech, Low-Cost Tool for the Homeless.” Retrieved June 19, 2004 from  www.digitaldividenetwork.org/content/stories/. Should they do this without your consent? But is it ethical to track you without your consent? Ethics in MIS seek to protect and safeguard individuals and society by using information systems responsibly. ✦ Your internet service provider can track the IP addresses you visit. California has no ethical basis for its use tax. There could be valid reasons for this. For Friedman, the force which drives application determinism is competition within a free-market economy. Information Technology and the Ethics of Globalization. Moreover, it’s unethical. Malicious users may obtain this information by unethical means and use it to their advantage. However, there are others who advocate the need of privacy on the Internet, and even prefer anonymity while using it. But with the Internet, the various parts of a sales transaction can easily be scattered across not only many states but many countries. Goodman, Dean. “Children, the Digital Divide, and Federal Policy.” Retrieved on July 7, 2008 from www.kff.org/entmedia/upload/Children-The-Digital- Divide-And-Federal-Policy-Issue-Brief.pdf. There would be some justice in having a separate national (or even international) tax to help support Internet infrastructure. The directive was revised in 2009 which requires websites to obtain user consent before employing cookie storage. The World is Flat. 1999a. • Identify the principles for conduct that can be used to guide ethical decisions. If, however, there is not a basis in the principles of justice for these restrictions on individuals, then there is an ethical basis for changing the legal environment, either through the courts or legislatures. (Friedman 2005: 415–417) Calling this a “use tax” is California’s unjust attempt to get around the Supreme Court’s Sales Tax Locality Principle. Insofar as it is difficult or impossible even to apply for higher-status jobs without email capability, justice would require making this capability available even to the least-advantaged. “Cisco Q&A on China and Censorship.” Retrieved August 27, 2011 from blogs.cisco.com/gov/cisco_qa_on_china_and_censorship/. They control on what their people can and cannot view. Ethical issues relating to the use of the Internet and the implications for managers and business practice. Retrieved April 10 from news.yahoo.com. Let us first look at some of the Ethical and Social Issues that we see today that are created in the social network media. 2011. Our site includes quite a bit of content, so if you're having an issue finding what you're looking for, go on ahead and use that search feature there! Network administrators in companies need to monitor traffic to their server, which includes tracking the Internet use by employees. The police used the information (an IP address) to arrest a suspect for posting vulgar content about a top Indian political leader. This is Rawls’s social contract’s first principle of justice, Greatest Equal Liberty: Society is to be arranged so that all members have the greatest equal liberty possible for all, including fair equality of opportunity. The global ethical Internet issues considered are Internet free speech, the regulation of websites with global presence, and the role of the Internet in facilitating globalization. We provide informative and helpful articles about the outlook for IT jobs throughout the U.S. It is of help against threats to web security and in protecting users from security breaches. The social ethical problems discussed are the Digital Divide and sales tax on Internet transactions. This paper surveys foundational ethical issues that attach to the Internet of Things (IoT). ✦ This tracking can potentially breach your privacy on the Internet. 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