[71] Cārvāka epistemology holds perception as the primary source of knowledge while rejecting inference which can be invalid. [97] Swami Vivekananda (1863–1902) was very influential in developing the Hindu reform movements and in bringing the worldview to the West. Astikshiromani Charvaka (in Marathi). The first three categories are defined as artha (which can be perceived) and they have real objective existence. [88] Through the work of Dharmakirti, this tradition of Buddhist logic has become the major epistemological system used in Tibetan Buddhist philosophy and debate.[89]. 297–314)", in Franco, Eli; Preisendanz, Karin, Beyond Orientalism: the work of Wilhelm Halbfass and its impact on Indian and cross-cultural studies (1st Indian ed. Cārvāka or Lokāyata was an atheistic philosophy of scepticism and materialism, who rejected the Vedas and all associated supernatural doctrines. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd. pp. In many cases, the philosophical schools are indistinguishable from the various religions which gave rise to them (or vice versa). Sāmkhya sources argue that the universe consists of two realities, puruṣa (consciousness) and prakṛti (matter). [76], Original scriptures of the Ājīvika school of philosophy may once have existed, but these are currently unavailable and probably lost. 66 ff. A key figure of this anti-traditional current was Yan Fu (1853–1921) who translated various Western philosophical works including Smith's The Wealth of Nations and Mill's On Liberty. Hägglund: Death&Meaning; Why Does The World Exist? Whatever we experience is a composite of these atoms. There is still a widespread inclination to think that there is an unbridgeable chasm between Eastern and Western philosophy. [104] Other influential classical Confucian philosophers include Mencius and Xun Kuang who famously disagreed on the innate moral nature of humans. [87] The Dignāga (c. 480–540) school of Pramāṇa promoted a complex form of epistemology and Buddhist logic. In Hindu history, the distinction of the six orthodox schools was current in the Gupta period "golden age" of Hinduism. After the disappearance of Buddhism from India, these philosophical traditions continued to develop in the Tibetan Buddhist, East Asian Buddhist, and Theravada Buddhist traditions. Notable among these are: The term sometimes also includes Middle Eastern traditions of philosophical thought, including: The distinction between Western and Eastern is of course somewhat arbitrary and artificial, and in some respects even misleading. 1, Article 6. [98] Through the work of Indians like Vivekananda as well as westerners such as the proponents of the Theosophical society, modern Hindu thought also influenced western culture. [57] Vedānta sees the Vedas, particularly the Upanishads, as a reliable source of knowledge. (2012), "Comparative Religion as Cultural Combat: Occidentalism and Relativism in Rajiv Malhotra's Being Different", International Journal of Hindu Studies, 16 (3): 335–348. However, Eastern Philosophy does not have the rigid academic traditions and exact branches. [105], Confucianism was a major ideology of the imperial state during the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE) and was revived as Neo-Confucianism during the Tang dynasty (618–907). Confucianism (Kǒngjiào — "Confucius' doctrine"), also known as "Ruism" (Rújiào — "doctrine of the scholars"), is a Chinese philosophical system with ritual, moral, and religious applications. [72], Likewise, they faulted Buddhists and Jains, mocking the concept of liberation, reincarnation, and accumulation of merit or demerit through karma. History and Doctrines of the Ājīvikas (2nd ed.). They were seen as sophists who specialized in refutation without propagating any positive doctrine of their own. Confucianism focuses on humanistic values like familial and social harmony, filial piety (孝, xiào), Rén (仁, "benevolence" or "humaneness") and Lǐ (禮/礼) which is a system of ritual norms that determines how a person should act to be in harmony with the law of Heaven. Mohism was also associated with and influenced by a separate philosophical school known as the School of Names (Míngjiā; also known as 'Logicians'), that focused on the philosophy of language, definition, and logic. These include:[37], The nāstika or heterodox schools are associated with the non-Vedic Śramaṇic traditions that existed in India since before the 6th century BCE. The sub-traditions of Vedānta include Advaita (non-dualism), Vishishtadvaita (qualified non-dualism), Dvaita (dualism), and Bhedabheda (difference and non-difference). Fa (standards: laws) and meaning changes in Chinese philosophy. Arvind-pal Singh Mandair (2014). [121] Thinkers like He Yan and Wang Bi focused on the deep nature of Tao, which they saw as being best exemplified by the term "Wu" (nothingness, non-being, negativity). Their ideas focused on the universality of Indian philosophy (particularly Vedanta) and the unity of different religions. Students' Britannica India (2000), Volume 4, Encyclopædia Britannica, Hiltebeitel, Alf (2007), Hinduism. [61], Jain philosophy deals extensively with the problems of metaphysics, reality, cosmology, ontology, epistemology, and divinity. Ancient Babylonian philosophy can be considered Eastern in some ways, but it almost certainly had a strong influence on Greek, particularly Hellenistic, philosophy. [77][78] Ājīvika considered the karma doctrine as a fallacy. pp. EASTERN PHILOSOPHY sna.syednomanali@gmail.com 2. A History of Eastern Philosophy. [56], A key text of the Mīmāṃsā school is the Mīmāṃsā Sūtra of Jaimini and major Mīmāṃsā scholars include Prabhākara (c. 7th century) and Kumārila Bhaṭṭa (fl. In Hsu, Mutsu; Chen, Jinhua; Meeks, Lori. A Neo-Buddhist movement was founded by the influential Indian Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar in the 1950s who emphasized social and political reform. Under the term "the East" we should understand primarily Asia, including such countries as China, India and Japan. [111] Another central figure, Shang Yang (390–338 BCE), was a leading statesman and reformer who transformed the Qin state into the dominant power that conquered the rest of China in 221 BCE. Both western and eastern philosophy has lots of simliarities too. In the Meiji period (1868–1912), the modernist Meirokusha (Meiji 6, formed in 1874) intellectual society promoted European enlightenment thought. While the classical enumeration of Indian philosophies lists six orthodox schools, there are other schools that are sometimes seen as orthodox. Tradition is inconsistent, and human beings need an extra-traditional guide to identify which traditions are acceptable. The development of physics in the twentieth century already has transformed the consciousness of those involved with it. Jeaneane Fowler (2002), Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism, Sussex Academic Press. [92], Juche, usually translated as "self-reliance", is the official political ideology of North Korea, described by the regime as Kim Il-Sung's "original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought". Vaiśeṣika is a naturalist school of atomism, which accepts only two sources of knowledge, perception, and inference. Prem Pahlajrai, Asian Languages and Literature, University of Washington, http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/hilltopreview/vol4/iss1/6, https://www.academia.edu/24999390/Persistent_Misconceptions_about_Chinese_Legalism_, https://books.google.com/books?id=TKowRrrz5BIC&pg=PA68, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese-legalism/, http://www.philosophy.hku.hk/ch/Shen%20Bu%20Hai.htm, http://www.philosophy.hku.hk/ch/Lord%20Shang.htm, https://books.google.com/books?id=BIgS4p8NykYC&pg=PA44, https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2017/entries/neo-daoism/, "Schopenhauer's Initial Encounter with Indian Thought", China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summit, Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia, China–Japan–Korea Friendship Athletic Meeting, Association of East Asian Research Universities, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (CCASG / GCC), Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eastern_philosophy&oldid=992849057, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2015, Articles containing Sanskrit-language text, Articles needing additional references from January 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 12:45. [136] He explains that this Chinese view of the world is based not on science as the West knows it, but on chance. [127] There were also attempts to incorporate Western ideas of democracy, and republicanism into Chinese political philosophy, notably by Sun Yat-Sen (1866–1925) at the beginning of the 20th century. Chinese humanistic Buddhism or "Buddhism for Human Life" (Chinese: 人生佛教; pinyin: rénshēng fójiào) which was to be free of supernatural beliefs has also been an influential form of modern Buddhism in Asia.[92]. 1,700–1,050 BCE). The most important characteristic of the Eastern world view - one could almost say the essence of it - is the awareness of the unity and mutual interrelation of all things and events, the experience of all phenomena in the world as manifestations of a basic oneness. [27], Some of the earliest surviving philosophical texts are the Upanishads of the later Vedic period (1000–500 BCE). Padmanabh S Jaini (2001), Collected papers on Buddhist Studies, Motilal Banarsidass. It uses a system of Yin and Yang, which it places into hexagrams for the purposes of divination. Mohism is best known for the idea of "impartial care" (Chinese: 兼愛; pinyin: jiān ài; literally: "inclusive love/care"). The traditionalists meanwhile sought to revive and fortify traditional Chinese philosophical schools. [112] Shen's successor Han Fei (c. 280–233 BCE) synthesized the thought of the other Legalists in his eponymous text, the Han Feizi, one of the most influential Legalist texts which was used by successive Chinese statesmen and rulers as a guide for statesmanship and bureaucratic organization of the imperial state.[113][114]. It is an attractive alternative to western philosophy if we ever pine for a little bit of calm amongst the chaos of our lives. Hengy Chye Kiang 1999. p.v44. [119] The first organized form of Taoism, the Tianshi (Celestial Masters') school arose in the 2nd century CE. Some Western thinkers claim that philosophy as such is only characteristic of Western cultures. [5][6][7] The major orthodox schools arose sometime between the start of the Common Era and the Gupta Empire. Some have claimed that there is also a definite eastern element within Heidegger's philosophy. Delhi, India: Moltilal Banarsidass (Reprint: 2002). [115] According to Master Mo, persons should care equally for all other individuals, regardless of their actual relationship to them. This tradition contributed to what has been called an "epistemological turn" in Indian philosophy. Jainism is essentially a transtheistic religion of ancient India. Cowell, E.B. pp. Chad Hansen, University of Hong Kong. Life is round, and the recurrence with everything around it is important. Philosophy majors and minors alike, if they hope to receive a well-rounded look at the diverse perspectives out there, need to look beyond the more familiar “Western” ideologies. Buddhist thought is trans-regional and trans-cultural. Bingenheimer, Marcus (2007). In the Introduction to "Eastern Philosophy: The Basics", Victoria S. Harrison notes that this definition of "Eastern philosophy" is common in the academy and that this is because the Islamic tradition is deeply tied with Hellenic philosophy and Western philosophy and cannot be lumped into the same category as Chinese and Indian thought. Neo-Confucianism is a later further development of Confucianism but also went much more differently from the origin of Confucianism. Ancient Eastern Philosophy On the Ancient Wisdom of Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism & Confucianism. Followers of these two authors are often grouped together under the term Integral thought. 112–113. The attainment of immortality through external alchemy (waidan) and internal alchemy (neidan) was an important goal for many Taoists historically. They also held that the Vedas were "eternal, authorless, [and] infallible" and that Vedic injunctions and mantras in rituals are prescriptive actions of primary importance. Jainism may have roots dating back to the times of the Indus Valley Civilization. Theories of Education. Eastern Philosophy and Religion - The Life of Gautama. [124], Modern Chinese thought is generally seen as being rooted in Classical Confucianism (Jingxue), Neo-Confucianism (Lixue), Buddhism, Daoism, and Xixue (“Western Learning” which arose during the late Ming Dynasty). As motivation for his theory, Mozi brought in the Will of Heaven, but rather than being religious his philosophy parallels utilitarianism. Yao, Xinzhong (2000). [137] It is still commonplace in Western universities to teach only Western philosophy and to ignore Asian philosophy altogether, or consider only newer Western-influenced Asian thought proper "philosophy". Cambridge University Press. Eastern and Western philosophy by Bart Nooteboom 128. Cities of Aristocrats and Bureaucrats. Islamic philosophy is the Eastern tradition most closely connected to Western philosophy due to a shared Greek philosophical heritage. As shown by the Sāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra (c. 14th century CE), Sāmkhya continued to develop throughout the medieval period. 185–188. The work of Mahatma Gandhi, Deendayal Upadhyaya, Rabindranath Tagore, Aurobindo, Krishna Chandra Bhattacharya, and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan has had a large impact on modern Indian philosophy.[100]. Creel, 1974 p. 4, 119 Shen Pu-hai: A Chinese Political Philosopher of the Fourth Century BCE. Following the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 and the end of the Qing Dynasty, the May Fourth Movement sought to completely abolish the old imperial institutions and practices of China (such as the old civil service system). [45] The school developed a complex theoretical exposition of the evolution of consciousness and matter. Jain philosophy attempts to explain the rationale of being and existence, the nature of the Universe and its constituents, the nature of the bondage and the means to achieve liberation. The modern period saw the rise of Buddhist modernism and Humanistic Buddhism under Western influences and the development of Western Buddhism with influences from modern psychology and Western philosophy. Eastern and Western philosophy published 12-1-2014 Here I start a series on differences and similarities between Eastern and Western philosophy, and my position in that. [13] Hinduism, with about one billion followers[14] is the world's third-largest religion, after Christianity and Islam. 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